Union Of India vs Ex. Constable Ram Karan on 11 November, 2021


Try out our Premium Member services: Virtual Legal Assistant, Query Alert Service and an ad-free experience. Free for one month and pay only if you like it.

Supreme Court of India

Union Of India vs Ex. Constable Ram Karan on 11 November, 2021

Author: Ajay Rastogi

Bench: Ajay Rastogi, Abhay S. Oka

                                                                      REPORTABLE
                                   IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
                                   CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
                               CIVIL APPEAL NO(S). 6723 OF 2021
                              (Arising out of SLP(Civil) No(s). 34160 of 2016)

         UNION OF INDIA & ORS.                                   …..APPELLANT(S)


                                   VERSUS


         EX. CONSTABLE RAM KARAN                                 …..RESPONDENT(S)


                                             JUDGMENT

Rastogi, J.

1. Leave granted.

2. Union of India, in the instant appeal, has challenged the

judgment and order passed by the Division Bench of the High Court

of Delhi substituting the penalty of removal from service inflicted on

the respondent after holding disciplinary inquiry as provided under

Rule 27 of The Central Reserve Police Force Rules, 1955 (hereinafter

being referred to as the “Rules 1955”) with confinement of respondent
Signature Not Verified

Digitally signed by
JAGDISH KUMAR

from 1.00 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. in quarter guard jail without noticing
Date: 2021.11.11
17:33:45 IST
Reason:

the mandate of the nature of punishments indicated under Section
1

11(1) of The Central Reserve Police Force Act, 1949 (hereinafter being

referred to as the “Act 1949”).

3. The brief facts of the case culled out from the record are that the

respondent joined service with the Central Reserve Police Force in the

year 1983 and was on attachment duty at Group Centre, CRPF. In

2003, his wife was under treatment of Dr. Nazir, Gynaecologist

(complainant). On 12th September 2003, the respondent

accompanied with his wife forcibly entered into the chamber of the

Dr. Nazir­complainant and asked him to attest the reimbursement of

medical claims and upon his refusal, the respondent verbally abused

and physically struck the Doctor­Complainant, resulting in injuries.

He was escorted out by the Constable Suresh, who also happened to

see the conduct of the respondent and his wife. Respondent not only

misbehaved and abused the Doctor­complainant while on duty in

which he sustained injuries on his face but to conceal his

misconduct, he made a false allegation of sexual harassment on his

wife against the Doctor­complainant. For such a gross misconduct,

which he had committed while in service, he was placed under

suspension and a Charge Memo dated 29 th October, 2003 for holding

2
disciplinary inquiry under Rule 27 of the Rules 1955 came to be

served upon him for (i) violation of Section 11(1) of the Rules 1955,

for misbehaving and abusing and injuring the Doctor­complainant

while on official duty; and (ii) for instituting false criminal charges of

sexual harassment against the Doctor­complainant. Article of Charge

1 and Charge 2 of the Charge Memo along with the details are

reproduced hereunder:­

“ARTICLE I
Constable Driver No.961340413 Ram Karan of 120BN while
being at the post of Constable have violated rule 11(1) being the
member of the force on 12.9.03 around 12.00 senior medical officer
who was on official duty Const. Ram Karan misbehaved and abused
due to which received injuries near bus left eye which is punishable
under the act.

ARTICLE II
Constable Driver Ram Karan 120 BN while being posted in
Pinjore as Const/Driver in the Month of September 2003 has violated
CRPF rules 1949 rule 11(1) being the member of the force
misbehaved with doctor Abdul Nair abused him that the doctor had
misbehaved with his wife Savita Devi who has visited the doctor
along with her husband who had violated the said rules.”

Details

“The said Const/Driver Rain Karan did 10.3.03 to 26.9.03 was
posted in Pinjore. Wife of Const/Driver were under treatment of
senior medical officer Dr. Nazir on 11.9.03 has set her case for
consideration. Smt. Savita dated 12.9.03 around 11.15 has visited
Dr. Nazir with Cash memo No.2137 dated 11.9.03 she left the room
that her husband is going to teach him a lesson. Around 12.00 driver
Ram Karan visited the office saying to authorize the cash memo in
which medicine prescribed by the doctor were not mentioned when
refused he misbehaved and abused the doctor.

3
The said, misbehaviour was reported by Dr. Abdul Nazir to the
senior official Pinjore on the complaint of Abdul Nazir action was
taken against Cont. Ram Karan and suspended on the same day. In
order to gain sympathy of the general public he falsely made
allegation against Dr. Nazir of sexual abuse of his wife. According to
const. Ram Karan his wife Savita was under treatment of Dr. Abdul
Nazir and had gone for a checkup. During check up Dr. Nazir
sexually abused her and on calling her husband for help and when
his husband entered the room he was beaten by the doctor.

Hence Cont./Driver Ram Karan has made false allegations
against Dr. Nazir of sexual abuse of his wife Savita. His only purpose
of doing so was to save himself from injury and gain sympathy of
public although according to witnesses on 12.9.03 around 12.00 he
along with his wife has entered the room of the doctor.”

4. The departmental inquiry was conducted by the disciplinary

authority in terms of the procedure prescribed under Rule 27 of

Rules 1955 and after affording an opportunity of hearing, the

disciplinary authority found both the charges proved against him

after due compliance of the principles of natural justice and taking

note of the gravity of the charges which were found proved and all

other factors into consideration, punished him with the penalty of

removal from service by an Order dated 14 th July, 2004.

5. The Departmental Appeal preferred against the Order dated

14th July, 2004 before the Appellate Authority came to be dismissed

by an Order dated 3rd January, 2006 and the revision petition also

came to be rejected by the revisional authority by an Order dated 1 st

4
October, 2008. The penalty of removal from service and

consequential orders passed by the appellate/revisional authority

was the subject matter of challenge by filing writ petition before the

High Court of Delhi under Article 226 of the Constitution at the

instance of the respondent.

6. After taking note of the factual matrix on record and the

submissions made, the High Court under its impugned judgment

dated 11th February, 2016 upheld the charges which were found

proved by the disciplinary authority during the course of inquiry.

However, substituted the penalty of removal from service inflicted

upon the respondent in exercise of the power of judicial review and

recorded a finding that looking into the nature of allegations which

stand proved, the punishment of removal from service is

disproportionate to the proved misconduct to confinement of the

respondent from 1.00 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. in quarter guard jail as

the adequate punishment with a further direction for his

reinstatement with immediate effect with entitlement of salary and

other benefits admissible to him under the law for the purposes of

5
calculating the pensionary benefits. The relevant paras of the

impugned judgment dated 11th February, 2016 are as under:­

“19. The evidence of PW­5 Suresh shows that on entering into Dr.
Nazir’s room, he saw both the doctor and the appellant scuffling with
each other and they were separated through his intervention. There
is nothing on record to show that the appellant had acted in a pre­
meditated manner or had planned the whole thing. The incident
appears to have occurred at the spur of the moment. Although the
court cannot be certain about the circumstance, yet there can be a
reasonable doubt as to whether there was anything spoken to the
petitioner’s wife, by Dr. Nazir, which led to the scuffle or altercation.
Whilst the version about the assault on the petitioner’s wife may be
doubtful, the statement made to the police that the doctor had
expressed something about her character in the context of her
inability to produce the prescribed medication, for verification, is still
open to judicial scrutiny in the application under Section 156(3) of
Cr.P.C. of his wife.

20. Keeping in view the totality of the circumstances of this case, we
are of the view that the penalty of removal from service, especially
when the petitioner has clean record of 11 years of previous service,
is disproportionate to the proved charges. Given the circumstances of
the case, we feel that confinement of petitioner from 1.00 PM noon to
10.00 PM in quarter guard jail was sufficient punishment. We
accordingly order for the reinstatement of the petitioner with
immediate effect. The respondents are also directed to treat the
period from the date of dismissal till the reinstatement as per the
provisions of law. The petitioner is also entitled for salary and other
benefits admissible in law. He shall be considered on duty during
this period for the purpose of calculation of pensionary benefits. The
petition is allowed in the above terms. No costs.”

7. This Court, while issuing notice by an Order dated 18th

November 2016, stayed the operation of the impugned judgment

dated 11th February, 2016.

6

8. Ms. Madhavi Divan, learned ASG appearing for the Union of

India submits that the interference which has been made by the

High Court under its limited scope of judicial review under Article

226 of the Constitution is a clear abuse of judicial discretion and

such a gross misconduct which was committed by the respondent

while serving as member of discipline force in CRPF, in no manner,

was pardonable.

9. Learned counsel further submits that Section 11 of the

scheme of Act 1949 has been completely overlooked by the High

Court. That in terms of Section 11, the competent authority may

award in lieu of or in addition to suspension or dismissal, any one

or more of the punishments including confinement in quarter guard

jail or removal referred to under clauses (d) and (e) of Section 11(1)

of the Act, 1949.

10. Learned counsel further submits that the High Court has

proceeded on its own perception as if it was a case of criminal trial

where incident can be condoned if it has been committed without

pre­meditated manner or occurred at the spur of the moment. This

theory may not apply in the case of departmental enquiry and in

7
the given circumstances, the interference made by the High Court

in substituting punishment under the impugned judgment dated

11th February 2016 is unsustainable in law and deserves to be set

aside.

11. In support of her submission, learned counsel has placed

reliance on the judgment of this Court in Union of India and

Others Vs. Ghulam Mohd. Bhat.1

12. On the other hand, Mr. Ashok Agrwaal, learned counsel for the

respondent, while supporting the finding recorded by the High

Court in the impugned judgment submits that the respondent had

rendered, by that time, 11 years of unblemished service and he had

full respect and regard to Dr. Nazir­complainant but the

circumstances created at the given time were such that were

beyond his control and the High Court has taken note of not only

the unblemished service of 11 years but in totality of the facts

under consideration while holding the punishment of removal from

service, to be disproportionate to the charges proved against him

1 2005(13) SCC 228.

8
and what has been considered by the High Court in the impugned

judgment is not only substituting the punishment but protecting

the rights of the respondent and his family and to save his

livelihood and submits that a justice has been done by the High

Court under the impugned judgment which may not require any

interference by this Court.

13. We have heard learned counsel for the parties and with their

assistance perused the material available on record.

14. The service conditions of member of the force are governed in

accordance with provisions of the Act 1949. Section 9 and Section

10 provides the nature of “more heinous offences/less heinous

offences”. The nature of punishments have also been provided for

more heinous offences/less heinous offences, if found proved

against member of the force are in the form of imprisonment for a

term provided under scheme of the Act. At the same time, the

nature of minor punishments are provided under Section 11 of the

Act 1949 and the procedure to be followed by the disciplinary

authority has been prescribed under Rule 27 of the Rules 1955.

The relevant paras are as under:­

9
“Section 11. Minor punishments. – (1) The Commandant or any other
authority or officer as may be prescribed, may, subject to any rules made
under this Act, award in lieu of, or in addition to, suspension or dismissal
any one or more of the following punishments to any member of the Force
whom he considers to be guilty of disobedience, neglect of duty, or
remissness in the discharge of any duty or of other misconduct in his
capacity as a member of the Force, that is to say, ­

(a) reduction in rank;

(b) fine of any amount not exceeding one month’s pay and
allowances;

(c) confinement to quarters, lines or camp for a term not
exceeding one month;

(d) confinement in the quarter­guard for not more than twenty­
eight days, with or without punishment drill or extra guard,
fatigue or other duty; and

(e) removal from any office of distinction or special emolument in
the Force.

……”.

“Rule 27. Procedure for the Award of Punishments.­ (a) The
Punishments shown as items 1 to 11 in column 2 of the table below may
he inflicted or non­Gazetted Officers and men of the various ranks
shown in each of the headings of columns 3 to 6, by the authorities
named below such headings under the conditions mentioned in column

7.

                                            TABLE
Sl. Punishment              Subedar       Sub-      Others except   Consts &    Remarks
No.                         (Inspector)   Inspector Const &         enrolled
                                                    enrolled        followers
                                                    followers
1      2                3                 4         5               6           7
1.     Dismissal     or DIGP              DIGP      Comdt.          Comdt.      To be inflicted
       removal from the                                                         after    formal
       Force                                                                    departmental
                                                                                enquiry.
2.             …                …            …            …           …               …
3.             …                …            …            …           …               …
4.             …                …            …            …           …               …
5.             …                …            …            …           …               …
6.     Confinement in the       -            -            -         Comdt.      To be inflicted
       Quarter     Guard                                                        after    formal
       exceeding    seven                                                       departmental
       days but not more                                                        enquiry.
       than twenty-eight

                                                                                              10
        days        with    or
        without    punishment
        drill or   extra guard
        fatigue     or other
        duty.
7.               …            …        …          …        …             …
8.      Removal from any DIGP        DIGP    Comdt.      Comdt.   May          be
        office of distinction                                     inflicted
        or            special                                     without       a
        emolument in the                                          formal
        Force.                                                    departmental
                                                                  enquiry.
9.      …
10.     Confinement     to       -       -       -       Comdt.          -
        Quarter Guard for
        not    more   than
        seven days with or
        without punishment
        or extra guard
        fatigue or other
        duty.
11.             …          …         …       …           …        …



Note.­ 1. When the post of Deputy Inspector General remains unfilled
for a period of over one month at a time the Commandant shall
exercise the powers of punishing the Subedars (Inspectors) and Sub­
Inspectors except the powers of ordering dismissal or removal from
the Force.

Note. ­ 2. When the post of Commandant remains unfilled for a
period of over one month at a time consequent on the incumbent
proceeding on leave or otherwise, the Assistant Commandant shall
exercise the powers of punishment vested in the Commandant,
except the powers of ordering dismissal or removal from the Force.

Explanation:­ (a) Dismissal of member of the Force precludes him
from being re­employed in Government service while removal of any
such member from the Force shall not be disqualification for any
future employment (other than an employment in the Central
Reserve Police Force) under the Government.

(b) When non­gazetted officers or men of the various ranks are to be
punished for any offence; a departmental enquiry, if necessary under
clause (a) shall be held by the Commandant or other superior officer
under the orders of the Commandant, provided that when the charge

11
is against an officer of the rank of Subedar (Inspector) or Sub­
Inspector the enquiry shall be held by an authority to be designated
for the purpose by the Deputy Inspector General. Where the officer
conducting the enquiry in the case of a Subedar (Inspector) or a Sub­
Inspector considers that a punishment under items (1) to (5) and (7)
of the Table is called for, he shall complete the departmental
proceedings and forward the same to the Deputy Inspector General
for orders.(GSR 631 dated 27.8.1983)

(c) The procedure for conducting a departmental enquiry shall be as
follows:­

(1) The substance of the accusation shall be reduced to the form of a
written charge, which should be as precise as possible. The
charge shall be read out to the accused and a copy of it given to
him at least 48 hrs. before the commencement of the enquiry.

(2) At the commencement of the enquiry the accused shall be asked
to enter a plea of “Guilty” or “Not Guilty” after which evidence
necessary to establish the charge shall be let in. The evidence
shall be material to the charge and may either be oral or
documentary, if oral:

(i) it shall be direct:

(ii) it shall be recorded by the Officer conducting, the enquiry
himself in the presence of the accused:

(iii) the accused shall be allowed to cross examine the
witnesses.

……..”

15. The scheme of Section 11 of the Act 1949 mandates that the

competent authority may, subject to rules made thereunder, award

in lieu of, or in addition to, suspension or dismissal any one or more

punishment if found guilty of misconduct in his capacity as member

of the force.

12

16. The use of words ‘in lieu of, or in addition to, suspension or

dismissal’, appearing in Section 11(1) clearly indicates that the

authorities mentioned therein are empowered to award punishment

of suspension or dismissal to member of the force who is found

guilty and in addition to, or in lieu thereof, the punishment

mentioned in clause (a) to (e) may also be awarded.

17. It may be noted that more heinous offences or less heinous

offences prescribe penalty of sentence of imprisonment if member of

the force is found guilty. At the same time, Section 11 is clear and

unambiguous and prescribe those minor punishments which the

competent authority may award in a departmental inquiry in lieu of

or in addition to suspension or dismissal any one or more of the

punishments to member of the force as referred under clauses (a) to

(e) of Section 11(1) of the Act 1949 even if the member has not been

prosecuted for an offence under Section 9 or Section 10 of the Act.

18. It is also well settled that removal and dismissal from service

stand on the same footing and both terminate the relationship of

employer/employee. The only difference between the two is that in

13
the case of dismissal, it precludes the employee from seeking future

employment in the Government while in the case of removal, he is

not disqualified from any future employment. By virtue of an

explanation appended to Rule 27 of the scheme of Rules 1955, the

rule making authority has made it clear that dismissal of a member

of the force precludes him from being re­employed in Government

service, while removal of any such member from the force shall not

be disqualification, for any future employment (other than an

employment in the Central Reserve Police Force) under the

Government.

19. In the instant case, the respondent has been punished with

penalty of removal from service after the charges levelled against

him stood proved by the disciplinary authority in a departmental

inquiry held against him after going through the procedure

prescribed under Rule 27 of the Rules 1955. Such nature of minor

punishment of removal from service could be in addition to

dismissal as being provided under Section 11 of the Act 1949.

14

20. Section 11 of the Act 1949 has been completely overlooked by

the High Court while examining as to whether the punishment of

removal from service could be inflicted in lieu of or in addition to

dismissal from service to member of the force, if the misconduct

stands proved in the course of disciplinary inquiry and after it was

confirmed by the High Court under the impugned judgment.

21. The nature of allegations against the respondent are indeed

grave in nature as the respondent not only threatened the Doctor­

complainant but has misbehaved and abused and injured him and

made false allegations against him of sexual harassment to his wife.

Such a nature of misconduct which has been committed by the

respondent once stand proved is unpardonable and if the authority

has considered it appropriate to punish him with penalty of removal

from service by an Order dated 14 th July 2004 and confirmed by the

appellate/revisional authority and by the High Court in the

impugned judgment leaves no sympathy for retention in service and

that too in a discipline force like CRPF.

15

22. The well ingrained principle of law is that it is the disciplinary

authority, or the appellate authority in appeal, which is to decide the

nature of punishment to be given to the delinquent employee.

Keeping in view the seriousness of the misconduct committed by

such an employee, it is not open for the Courts to assume and

usurp the function of the disciplinary authority.

23. Even in cases where the punishment imposed by the

disciplinary authority is found to be shocking to the conscience of

the Court, normally the disciplinary authority or the appellate

authority should be directed to reconsider the question of imposition

of penalty. The scope of judicial review on the quantum of

punishment is available but with a limited scope. It is only when

the penalty imposed appears to be shockingly disproportionate to

the nature of misconduct that the Courts would frown upon. Even

in such a case, after setting aside the penalty order, it is to be left to

the disciplinary/appellate authority to take a call and it is not for

the Court to substitute its decision by prescribing the quantum of

punishment. However, it is only in rare and exceptional cases where

the court might to shorten the litigation may think of substituting

16
its own view as to the quantum of punishment in place of

punishment awarded by the competent authority that too after

assigning cogent reasons.

24. The principles have been culled out by a three­Judge Bench of

this Court way back in B.C. Chaturvedi vs. Union of India and

Others2 wherein it was observed as under:­

“18. A review of the above legal position would establish that the
disciplinary authority, and on appeal the appellate authority,
being fact­finding authorities have exclusive power to consider
the evidence with a view to maintain discipline. They are invested
with the discretion to impose appropriate punishment keeping in
view the magnitude or gravity of the misconduct. The High
Court/Tribunal, while exercising the power of judicial review,
cannot normally substitute its own conclusion on penalty and
impose some other penalty. If the punishment imposed by the
disciplinary authority or the appellate authority shocks the
conscience of the High Court/Tribunal, it would appropriately
mould the relief, either directing the disciplinary/appellate
authority to reconsider the penalty imposed, or to shorten the
litigation, it may itself, in exceptional and rare cases, impose
appropriate punishment with cogent reasons in support thereof.”

25. It has been further examined by this Court in Lucknow

Kshetriya Gramin Bank (Now Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

Gramin Bank) and Another vs. Rajendra Singh3 as under:­

“19. The principles discussed above can be summed up and
summarised as follows:

2 1995(6) SCC 749
3 (2013) 12 SCC 372
17
19.1. When charge(s) of misconduct is proved in an enquiry
the quantum of punishment to be imposed in a particular
case is essentially the domain of the departmental
authorities.

19.2. The courts cannot assume the function of
disciplinary/departmental authorities and to decide the
quantum of punishment and nature of penalty to be
awarded, as this function is exclusively within the
jurisdiction of the competent authority.

19.3. Limited judicial review is available to interfere with the
punishment imposed by the disciplinary authority, only in
cases where such penalty is found to be shocking to the
conscience of the court.

19.4. Even in such a case when the punishment is set aside
as shockingly disproportionate to the nature of charges
framed against the delinquent employee, the appropriate
course of action is to remit the matter back to the
disciplinary authority or the appellate authority with
direction to pass appropriate order of penalty. The court by
itself cannot mandate as to what should be the penalty in
such a case.

19.5. The only exception to the principle stated in para 19.4
above, would be in those cases where the co­delinquent is
awarded lesser punishment by the disciplinary authority
even when the charges of misconduct were identical or the
co­delinquent was foisted with more serious charges. This
would be on the doctrine of equality when it is found that the
employee concerned and the co­delinquent are equally
placed. However, there has to be a complete parity between
the two, not only in respect of nature of charge but
subsequent conduct as well after the service of charge­sheet
in the two cases. If the co­delinquent accepts the charges,
indicating remorse with unqualified apology, lesser
punishment to him would be justifiable.”

18

26. Adverting to the facts of the instant case, the High Court, in

our considered view, fell in error in interfering with the punishment,

which could lawfully be imposed by the departmental authorities for

his proven misconduct. The High Court should not have substituted

its own discretion for that of the authority. What punishment was

required to be imposed, in the facts and circumstances of the case,

was a matter which fell exclusively within the jurisdiction of the

competent authority and the interference made by the High Court is

in a cavalier manner while recording the finding of penalty to be

disproportionate without taking into consideration the seriousness

of the misconduct committed by the respondent which is

unpardonable and not sustainable in law.

27. Before we may conclude, we would like to observe that the

employees who are in civil services, their disciplinary matters are

being governed by their respective services (classification, control

and appeal) rules and for the sake of instance, we take note of the

Central Civil Services (Classification, Control and Appeal) Rules,

1965(hereinafter being referred to as the “Rules 1965”). The nature

of penalties has been provided under Part V and removal and

19
dismissal from service are in the category of “Major penalties”. If the

misconduct is found proved, looking into the gravity and the nature

of misconduct, either of the punishment, i.e., removal or dismissal

from service, could be inflicted upon the civil servant after holding

disciplinary enquiry for imposing major penalties if held guilty as

provided under Part IV of the Rules 1965 and this what being

ordinarily understood. The following penalties under scheme of

Rules 1965 may, for good and sufficient reasons and as hereinafter

provided can be imposed on a Government servant namely:­

“Minor penalties

(i) Censure;

(ii) ..

(iii) …
(iiia)…

(iv) withholding of increments of pay;

Major penalties:

      (v)      …
      (vi)     …
      (vii)    Compulsory retirement;

(viii) Removal from service, which shall not be a disqualification for
future employment under the Government;

(ix) Dismissal from service which shall ordinarily be a disqualification
for future employment under the Government.

….”

28. In the instant case, the disciplinary matters of members of the

force for minor punishments are being governed under Section 11 of

20
the Act 1949 and if any nature of more heinous offence/less heinous

offence being committed, if found proved, member of the force shall

be punishable for imprisonment for a specified term as being

referred to under Section 9 and Section 10 of the Act 1949 and at

the same time, dismissal and removal from service are being

considered to be the minor punishments as reflected from Section

11(1) of the Act 1949. If the allegation is found proved, the

competent authority may award in lieu of, or in addition to,

suspension or dismissal any one or more of punishments to a

member of the force whom he considers to be guilty of disobedience,

neglect or duty, or remissness in the discharge of any duty or of

other misconduct with confinement in the quarter­guard or removal

as indicated under clauses (d) and (e) of Section 11(1) of the Act

1949.

29. The scheme of the Act 1949 of which reference has been made

was completely overlooked by the High Court of Delhi and while

keeping in mind the standards of examining the misconduct of a

civil servant, interference has been made in the quantum of

punishment which may not apply to member of the discipline force

21
and, in our considered view, the interference made by the High

Court in substituting punishment in the instant case is

unsustainable and deserves to be set aside.

30. Consequently, the appeal succeeds and is allowed. The

impugned judgment of the High Court of Delhi dated 11 th February

2016 is quashed and set aside. No costs.

31. Pending application(s), if any, stand disposed of.

………………………J.

(AJAY RASTOGI)

……………………….J.

(ABHAY S. OKA)
NEW DELHI
NOVEMBER 11, 2021

22



Source link